Turtles Teach: What is Dry Ice?

Known for its spooky fog and subzero temperatures, dry ice is a mysterious and fascinating substance… but what is it?

dry ice

Everything is made of matter. Matter can exist in many states: solid, liquid, or gas. For instance, water can be liquid, solid (ice), or a gas (vapor or steam). We can change the state of matter by changing the environment that matter is in. You may know we can change water’s state just by changing the temperature. To make water into ice, we freeze it! To make water into a gas, we boil it! However, temperature is not the only factor that determines a substance’s state. Pressure is just as important. Water can be in all three states in normal pressure (1 atmosphere or 14.7 psi); this is not the case with dry ice.

Dry Ice is not made with water, but carbon dioxide. You may know carbon dioxide as a gas, the gas we exhale when we breathe. It too can freeze and change into a solid, but our freezers at home can’t do the job. Special factories use extremely low temperatures and high pressure just to make it. The extremely cold and pressurized carbon dioxide is brought to normal pressures and will solidify into dry ice. This ice is -109 degrees F. But what makes dry ice so fascinating is its ability to sublimate (Sublimation is when matter changes from a solid to a gas). At normal pressure, dry ice cannot be a liquid. When it “melts” it turn directly into carbon dioxide gas! You may see the fog that comes from its icy surface, but carbon dioxide is a clear and colorless gas that we can’t see… The fog is actually the result of water vapor in the air condensing from the cold gas, similar to your warm breath meeting the icy cold air during the winter. When dry ice is added to water, the carbon dioxide gas bubbles up to the surface quickly making the water look like its boiling.

Matter comes in all shapes, sizes, colors, temperatures, and states! Dry ice is just one of the cooler substances.

Hope you learned something new, from your favorite educators at Turtle Bay!

The New Bee Exhibit

To update the blog from last year, I will show how the beehive exhibit finally turned out.

Dr. R. Boyd fabricated the wooden case of the Kiosk. The challenge was to fit in the electronics, get the Kiosk to look nice, tamperproof the Kiosk, and have everything work:

q1

We screwed the Kiosk onto the side of the current Beehive exhibit. It has a leg (visible at lower left) to add more support and stability. In the picture I am tightening the bolts that hold the Kiosk.

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As can be seen above, the Kiosk is nearly self contained. It holds the computers to run the monitors, the wires to connect the computers to the monitors, and the wires to connect trackpads to the computers. We have those zipties to make all of those wires neater.

There is even a powerstrip to provide electricity. The only input it needs is electricity for that powerstrip!

When it was finally installed, it turned out great!

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The Kiosk feels like an integral part of the original exhibit due to its colors and the use of repurposed wood. It also provides access to a plethora of information for everyone, regardless of prior knowledge.

The Kiosk contains 232 slides about the bees and allows the visitor to explore topics from a variety of levels, from beginner to advanced. It delves into the properties of a beehive, like the one at Turtle Bay, and how to make sense of what you see in the hive and beecam.

Speaking of the beecam, it turned out to be a wild success!

 

It was no problem to weld it together, and it provides a beautiful view of the entrance.

(This photo is not from the Beecam, but is similar to what it would show)
(This photo is not from the Beecam, but is similar to what it would show)

The beecam view is routed into this wall monitor:

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It makes plainly visible the exterior beehive entrance from within the warm and cozy museum, even on cold and rainy days.
In the spring the hive will be renewed and there will be plenty to see and explore!

Things to Do in 2017

In case you are looking for something to do with you little ones while the big kids head back to school, or are wanting to provide fun learning opportunities for your children… Turtle Bay is a good place to start! Turtle Bay is already a place for interactive, exploratory fun, but did you know about some of our regular programming that is available to you? As the New Year starts, we invite you to join us as we experience the following programs this year.

Little Explorers

Little Explorers
These little ones got an up close meet and greet with Virginia, the box turtle.

Every Thursday morning, little ones ranging from 2 to 5 years old come with their families for the Little Explorers Program. This program facilitates a play-based learning environment where young children can investigate, create, and discover. Because Little Explorers is in the Mill Building, you can join in rain or shine. A typical program usually includes a story, an activity, and a take home craft all led by one of our docents. January’s theme is Nighttime Wonders. Join us in February to learn all about what’s On the Farm!

Little Explorers
We aren’t afraid of getting our hands dirty! This explorer is investigating a worm as he learns about what makes soil healthy.

Family Second Saturday

Family Second SaturdayIt’s in the name! Every second Saturday of the month, we invite everyone in the family to join us for an afternoon of interactive and educational fun. Although we offer new and exciting activities each month, we occasionally pull out some of our popular favorites! Keep an eye on our calendar for upcoming Family Second Saturday topics and activities; we hope to see you and the whole family there!

This month’s Family Second Saturday: Dry Ice Investigations

February: Innovations

Science Saturday

Science Saturday
Chemical Reactions come in all colors and sizes! Here we have colored Alka-Seltzer tablets being dissolved in warm and cold water. Do you think they had the same reaction?

Following our family Saturday program, each third Saturday of the month we feature Science Saturday. During this event, guests will have the opportunity to experiment, observe demonstrations, and hopefully will be able to answer the question, “What is going on?” as we explore and investigate.

This month’s Science Saturday: Science of Small

Science Saturday
How many glass beads in each glass do you see? Hint: there’s 3 altogether. Come see us this Science Saturday and find out what is going on!

February: On the Ranch

 

We hope to see you here soon!

Shasta County’s First Mini Maker Faire

Trilogy Challenge
During the faire, Trilogy Architecture hosted the “You Shall Not Pasta!” Bridge Building Challenge. Students from Cypress show off their pasta bridges before they are tested.

November 12th was the first Shasta County Mini Maker Faire. With 100+ vendors, over 2000 attendees and countless opportunities to create, this event met all of our expectations and more! Here are some highlights and pictures from the faire.

Bridges

Loom
Turtle Bay’s very own loom gave many makers the opportunity weave yarn to create a textile.

The Shasta County Mini Maker Faire was an opportunity for makers from all over North State and beyond to come together to not only showcase their passion, but to celebrate and inspire creativity, collaboration and hands-on experiences. This event was geared to be family-friendly and we are excited to share that over half of our attendees were under 18! We hope to continue this celebration as our younger community members are inspired by our local makers, educators, parents, and enthusiasts to build, design, innovate, and create.

Set up
Finalizing all the details before the participants arrive!

Although many of the activities provided by our makers are more difficult to recreate than others, we couldn’t help but to give you some ideas and activities you could do at home! Stay connected with the our maker community by following us on Facebook. Happy making!

North State Giving Tuesday is almost here!

Did you know we must raise over $1,000,000 each year to keep Turtle Bay operating? We rely on the generosity of our community to keep the Park serving as a safe, educational gathering place for all families in our community. If we charged admission that covered our expenses (without fundraising) admission would be about $40 a person – and that simply won’t do!

So we fundraise! This time of year, we send out holiday mailers. The past few years, we have raised about $10,000 for the park through generous people who mail back checks. These unrestricted funds help us with everything from keeping the lights on to booking exhibitions to feeding the animals!

Redding Bank of CommerceAlso, for the 2nd year, we are participating in the Shasta Regional Community Foundation’s North State Giving Tuesday. We hope whether you love the exhibitions, cultural and science educational programming, animals, gardens or trails, you’ll include Turtle Bay in your selected charities through www.northstategives.org.

United WayNSGT is the best time to support Turtle Bay as Shasta Regional Community Foundation is offering a variety of incentives to deepen the impact of your gift! Shout outs to Redding Bank of Commerce and United Way of Northern California for making these possible!

Donate online on Nov. 29 from 6 am – 6 pm

In appreciation for your donation of $20+ online to Turtle Bay on Giving Tuesday, we have some pretty amazing incentives:

  • Automatic entry into a raffle to win a 1-hour Family Photo Shoot + digital photos by Heather Armstrong Photography in Wildlife Woods with an Animal Ambassador!

A limited-edition Turtle Bay Wonder-Full foil temporary tattoo – the perfect little stocking stuffer! temporary tattoos

  • PLUS, if we hit our goal of $12,000, our President & CEO Mike Warren will be dunked in the dunk tank aka Visible River Aquarium! Watch on Facebook Live or at the Park on Wednesday, Nov. 30 @ 3:30 pm.
From https://media.giphy.com/media/6lQXzLPPpLTBS/giphy.gif

Need some motivation? Check out our Facebook page for kids speaking out on why they think the Park is Wonder-Full! We’re looking for more folk to join in on the fun too. Simply capture your friends & family on camera saying why you think the park is Wonder-Full, then upload to our Facebook, Twitter or Instagram pages with #whyitswonderfull so we can repost!

 

Thank you to all our members and donors!!

 

 

Mad Science Lab: Cabbage Chemistry

This experiment may be aimed for children, but if you release your inner mad scientist… we won’t tell!

Red cabbage juice may sound like the newest health fad, but really this liquid has been used in chemistry labs for years… That’s right, chemistry! Chemistry scientists, or chemists, study things that are so incredibly small we can’t see them. They study atoms and molecules. Because these particles are so small, the best way for chemists to study them is testing and observing how they act in certain environments and how they interact with other chemicals, like cabbage juice!

So, why cabbage juice? Red cabbage juice can be used as a pH indicator. When mixed with any liquid, the cabbage juice will change color depending on that liquid’s pH. The pH determines whether a chemical is an acid or a base. Acids have low pH values (1-6) and the molecules donate what we call a hydrogen ion (H+); bases have high pH values (8-14) and the molecules donate a hydroxyl ion (OH-). These ions interact with the cabbage juice and make it change color! When a substance does not have these ions, we call it neutral. For instance, pure water is neutral and has a pH of 7.

Safety First!

Some chemicals are safer than others; we will give you some ideas on safe chemicals to use during this experiment. If you want to explore more we recommend sticking to your kitchen supply; any food grade substance is safe to handle.

Red cabbage stains very easily, make sure you’re wearing clothes that are dark colored or that can be stained.

ALWAYS have an adult present when doing science experiments; not only do adults help you stay safe, they like to learn too!

Materials:

Test Tubestubes

If you don’t have a set of test tubes and a test tube rack like this one, you can use clear glasses to hold your liquids.

Eyedropper – if you don’t have one you can easily use a straw! To use, submerge the straw into the liquid so that the level inside the straw is how much you’d like to transfer (for this experiment you want to measure 1-2 inches from the bottom of the straw). Then place your finger on top of the straw so that it is airtight. Then place you straw over where you would like to transfer it to and move your finger off the straw.

Red Cabbage – you don’t need a whole head, one cup of shredded cabbage will be plenty

Assorted Liquids –We recommend vinegar, baking soda (mixed with a little bit of water), lemon or lime juice, milk, aspirin (dissolved in some water), dish soap, and whatever else you’d like to test (remember our safety guidelines!).

Procedure:

  1. If your cabbage is not already shredded, have an adult chop it up into smaller pieces.
  2. Put cabbage into a non-aluminum saucepan and add just enough water to cover it.
  3. Bring to boil and boil for 10-15 min.
  4. Pour cabbage juice into a container while straining out the cabbage leaves. Place in fridge until you are ready to test!
  5. Collect the liquids and dissolve any solids you’d like to test. You should use enough of each so that the amount of liquid is about ¾ inch from the bottom and you can see it from the side.
  6. Once you have placed each liquid in their glass or tube, add enough cabbage juice until you can see the color.

What’s going on?

As we talked about earlier, cabbage juice uses color to indicate the pH level of liquids. Blue/Green color appears in substances that have a high pH value. Light/Bright Pink appears in substances with a low pH value. Remember which one is which? Arrange your tubes/glasses so that you make a pH rainbow! What liquids turned the juice pink? Which turned the juice blue or green? Did any leave the juice purple?

Remember: you’re a chemist! Record your data, ask questions, make predictions, and do some research if you’d like.

Make sure to take pictures and share with your friends too!

Don’t forget!

We are taking registrations for both of our single day camps. November 22nd is Up, Up, and Away Camp and December 20th is DIY Science Camp. More information and how to sign up can be found here.

From the Vault: Digging into the Past and Mining the Future for new Exhibitions

While we are known for bringing in exhibitions such as Titanic: The Exhibition, A T-rex Named Sue, and Art of the Brick, or the upcoming Mythic Creatures: Dragons, Unicorns, and Mermaids from the American Museum of Natural History, much of what we do focuses on our region and happens in collaboration with local organizations and people.

Hauling Hay
Photo by Chester Mullen

Right now, we are creating Rooted in this Land: Growing Food in Shasta County. This exhibition bubbled to the surface while we were discussing Shasta County’s first post-European-contact industries. Trappers came through the area, but they did not settle and start communities. The mining and timber industries were both vitally important to our early and on-going local economy, but they did not come first. That honor goes to ranching and farming.

Euro-American settlers, such as Shasta County’s first non-native resident, P.B. Reading, came here to settle on the land and to use that land to produce food. The property the Museum sits on was part of Reading’s original land grant.

This land use was at odds with the Native American tribes who already lived here and it has permanently altered the landscape and environment in unanticipated ways. It has also provided food to millions and livelihoods to many thousands of people, some of them in multi-generational family businesses.

Prunes
Drying Prunes
Photo by Chester Mullen

From historic cattle drives to modern Internet auctions and from sun-dried prunes and walnuts to organic wild rice and strawberries, things have changed over the years, but agriculture is still a big business in our region and it is part of our culture. So help us celebrate it!

Equipment
Farm Equipment for Sale
Photo by Chester Mullen

The exhibition will run from January 21 – April 30, 2017. If you have an idea or a local story you want to share or equipment to display, please email me (jcronin@turtlebay.org) or give us a call at 530-242-3191. The sooner the better!

 

The Vault is Always Open!

The Curatrix

Cattle
Grazing Cattle
Photo by Chester Mullen